Antibiotics: Uses, resistance, and side effects

General Information

Antibiotics are the medical tools used to treat and prevent various kinds of bacterial disorders from mild to severe ones. The use of antibiotics should be carefully considered in each individual case. The unwise use of antibiotics often leads to side effects, development of bacterial resistance to certain kinds of antibiotics and numerous health consequences.

The fact is not all antibiotics work for all kinds of microorganisms which provoke inflammation and disease in a human body. Antibiotics can be divided into groups of narrow spectrum and wide spectrum medicines. From the very name narrow spectrum are administered only for certain types of bacteria and are not effective for all the others.

Agents against Bacteria

Broad spectrum agents work against many types of bacteria and are used to treat various bacterial infections. The use of a particular type of antibiotic is based on the condition which a person suffers from, his personal history of allergic reactions to antibiotic agents, tolerability and response to the therapy. Besides, certain groups of patients such as pregnant women or children or people with chronic or acute kidney or liver disorders cannot use antibiotics or should be adjusted the alternative safe types of antibiotic agents.

Antibiotics against Microorganisms

As narrow spectrum antibiotics are only effective against a limited range of microorganisms, they are used for certain uncommon types of bacterial infections or infections of very serious character. They kill only bacteria which cause the disease. While broad spectrum antibiotics are often self-administered for a great number of infections from common sore throat to infections of the urinary tract. They kill every pathogen they meet on their way.

Certain groups of antibiotics target the infections of certain body organs and systems. For instance, bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract can be treated by different antibiotics.

There is another division of all antibiotics to bactericidal and bacteriostatic.

Bactericidal antibiotics have a direct purpose to kill the bacteria in the human body. This type of antibiotics may injure the membranes of pathogens or destroy the DNA and RNA of bacteria.

Bacteriostatic antibiotics don’t allow bacteria growing in the body. The pathogens don’t die, but they can’t grow or replicate either. Then the immune system starts its work to get rid of these pathogenic bacteria. For instance, some antibiotics prevent the growth of bacteria by interfering in the process of protein formation and thus stop bacteria from developing. Lots of bacteriostatic antibiotics impair the ability of bacteria to replicate by depriving bacteria from important metabolites for making new DNA and RNA.

How to prevent resistance to antibiotics

Being careful while having the treatment with antibiotics can prevent resistance of bacteria and dangers to health. One should consider the following things before using any type of antibiotic.

The first thing to do is to visit a doctor and make sure that you really need the antibiotic therapy. Do not apply the antibiotic medicines if you have common cold, flu or any other condition not caused by bacteria.

Secondly you should follow all your doctor’s recommendations of use. The antibiotics should be used for the entire time period prescribed for you.

Very frequently the symptoms and signs of the bacterial condition disappear soon after you start the treatment with antibiotics. This in most cases does not mean that the infection is completely treated.

It is important to continue the treatment even if your symptoms improved. The bacteria should be fully destroyed. Usually the treatment with antibiotics lasts for several days. Sometimes in cases of severe infections the treatment need longer time.

Do not self-treat! It may be dangerous for your health. Even if you have infection caused by bacteria, only a doctor can decide which type of antibiotic to choose. Today there are lots of antibiotics of wide spectrum of use. Still certain bacterial infections need to be treated with certain antibiotics.


Q: What is Keflex used to treat?

A: This medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. Buy Cephalexin online in case you need a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. This medication will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu).

Q: How quickly does Cephalexin work?

A: Cephalexin antibiotic begins to kill the bacteria causing a skin infection very quickly. However, you may not notice the skin infection improving for 2 to 3 days. Follow the directions on your cephalexin medication bottle — and finish all doses of cephalexin, even after the skin infection looks and feels better.

Q: What is the side effect of Cephalexin 500mg?

A: Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, or upset stomach may occur. If any of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new yeast infection.

Q: Is Cephalexin stronger than Amoxicillin?

A: When dosed appropriately, both antibiotics are effective against their covered organisms. The organism coverage of cephalexin makes it effective in some conditions that amoxicillin is not, including mastitis and bone and joint infections.